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Use batched finder for large data query

09 Sep 2010

Richard Huang (

Imagine you have a newsletter system which is very famous and has 10,000,000 users. Every Monday morning, the system will send emails to all of the users.

In General

You may find all the users, then send emails to them one by one

User.all.each do |user|

It may work, but do you know there are 10,000,000 users? This code snippet will find all of the users and create a ruby object for each user row in table. The server is unhappy due to too much memory is eaten by your newsletter application.


From rails 2.3, find_each and find_in_batches are available for batched finder. We can use them to improve the performance of the newsletter application.

User.find_each do |user|

Using find_each, the application only finds 1,000 users once, yield them, then handle the next 1,000 users, until the last 1,000 users. That means the application will only load 1,000 user objects into memory each time, the server is happy now.

1,000 is the default batch size, if you think it is small/big to you, you can use the :batch_size option to change it.

find_in_batches is similar to find_each except that it yields the array of objects

User.find_in_batches(:batch_size => 5000) do |users|
  users.each { |user| NewsLetter.weekly_deliver(user) }

This method is very useful for large data query, saving your memory and time.